ESP32 built in hall effect sensor example

One feature of the ESP32 that sometimes goes unnoticed is the built in hall effect sensor.

Lets look at a hall effect sensor and how it works – from wikipedia

A Hall effect sensor is a device that is used to measure the magnitude of a magnetic field. Its output voltage is directly proportional to the magnetic field strength through it.

Hall effect sensors are used for proximity sensing, positioning, speed detection, and current sensing applications.

Frequently, a Hall sensor is combined with threshold detection so that it acts as and is called a switch. Commonly seen in industrial applications such as the pictured pneumatic cylinder, they are also used in consumer equipment; for example some computer printers use them to detect missing paper and open covers. They can also be used in computer keyboards, an application that requires ultra-high reliability.

Hall sensors are commonly used to time the speed of wheels and shafts, such as for internal combustion engine ignition timing, tachometers and anti-lock braking systems. They are used in brushless DC electric motors to detect the position of the permanent magnet. In the pictured wheel with two equally spaced magnets, the voltage from the sensor will peak twice for each revolution. This arrangement is commonly used to regulate the speed of disk drives.

In a Hall effect sensor, a thin strip of metal has a current applied along it. In the presence of a magnetic field, the electrons in the metal strip are deflected toward one edge, producing a voltage gradient across the short side of the strip (perpendicular to the feed current). Hall effect sensors have an advantage over inductive sensors in that, while inductive sensors respond to a changing magnetic field which induces current in a coil of wire and produces voltage at its output, Hall effect sensors can detect static (non-changing) magnetic fields.

In its simplest form, the sensor operates as an analog transducer, directly returning a voltage. With a known magnetic field, its distance from the Hall plate can be determined. Using groups of sensors, the relative position of the magnet can be deduced.

When a beam of charged particles passes through a magnetic field, forces act on the particles and the beam is deflected from a straight path. The flow of electrons through a conductor form a beam of charged carriers. When an conductor is placed in a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of the electrons, they will be deflected from a straight path. As a consequence, one plane of the conductor will become negatively charged and the opposite side will become positively charged. The voltage between these planes is called the Hall voltage.[2]

When the force on the charged particles from the electric field balances the force produced by magnetic field, the separation of them will stop. If the current is not changing, then the Hall voltage is a measure of the magnetic flux density. Basically, there are two kinds of Hall effect sensors. One is linear which means the output of voltage linearly depends on magnetic flux density; the other is called threshold which means there will be a sharp decrease of output voltage at each magnetic flux density.

Code

 

int val = 0;
void setup()
{
Serial.begin(9600);
}
 
void loop()
{
val = hallRead();
// print the results to the serial monitor:
Serial.print("sensor = ");
Serial.println(val);//to graph
delay(500);
}

 

Output

Open the serial monitor and if you have a magnet then put it close to your ESP32

sensor = 20
sensor = 14
sensor = 17
sensor = 19
sensor = 17
sensor = 14
sensor = 18
sensor = 68
sensor = 78

If you reverse the magnet so that the other polarity is close to the ESP32 the readings will be negative

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